Agricultural plants are grown in the earth, in a living soil, which provides quality of health and nutrition to those that eat them be they humans or animals. They are always a reflection of the environment in which they are grown so health soils grow healthy plants, and the reverse is true as well, unhealthy soils produce unhealthy plants.
a. Pest management
Pest management has two contexts one being long term management and the other immediate control. Long term management focuses on the development of environmental factors including soil health and fertility to the point where we can say that an insect will starve on a healthy plant.
Controlled pest management in organic farming is achieved by using appropriate cropping techniques, biological controls, and natural pesticides which are mainly extracted from plant or animal origins.